For automakers, Level 4 may be the end goal


All automakers have pursued low to mid-level automation in some shape or form. Go-to-market strategies vary, but few have firmly put their hat in the ring for Level 5 automation. For now, the focus rests primarily on Level 3 and further out, Level 4.

It makes sense: these are companies that have built their business around the physical driving experience, performance and handling. And even with a fading emphasis on the thrill of driving and more so on connectivity, comfort and personalisation, automakers still wish to retain brand power. A Level 5 vehicle—that can drive anywhere and everywhere—would ignore typical characteristics that automakers design, package and sell. Instead, it bears closer resemblance with a limousine, shuttle or train, serving only as a mode of travel from A to B.

VW’s self-driving test vehicles are based on the fully electric ID. BUZZ AD, and should be deployed in commercial mobility services such as MOIA from 2025

Level 5 may not be



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